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'We don't know how it worked': the inside story of the Thai cave rescue

In the tip it used to be a textbook rescue operation. Divers controlled to hold, pull and every now and then swim the 12 younger Wild Boars footballers and their trainer alongside greater than two miles of flooded and cramped tunnels within the Tham Luang cave complicated, as billions of other people world wide watched.

However briefings by way of Thai officers and interviews with six Australian, American, Chinese language and Thai divers concerned within the operation have printed intensive main points of a plan some had been undecided may paintings, even after it began on Sunday morning.

A billboard in Chiang Rai displaying a photograph of the Wild Boars players and their coach with a message reading ‘welcome home brothers’.



A billboard in Chiang Rai showing a photograph of the Wild Boars avid gamers and their trainer with a message studying ‘welcome house brothers’. Photograph: Tang Chhin Sothy/AFP/Getty Photographs

“On the finish, once we controlled to get everybody out, we had been simply sitting there shaking our heads,” mentioned Claus Rasmussen, a Danish diver who helped to execute the rescue. “We haven’t any concept how this labored or why, however it did.”

The plan to ferry the men out accompanied by way of two professional divers, and escorted by way of a daisy chain of beef up staff, began to company up because the possibly possibility at the night time of Thursday five July, mentioned Ruengrit Changkwanyuen, a diver from Thailand who helped coordinate the diving groups – and to hold the primary two boys to a box clinic after they emerged on Sunday.


How the Thai cave rescue spread out – video

Through then the men and their trainer were trapped for greater than 13 days, after a amusing tour into the cave become a nightmare when flash floods bring to an end their go out. They weren’t came upon till 2 July, when John Volanthen, a Briton, discovered them huddled on a muddy slope just about two miles within the cave.

By the point the rescue plan used to be shaped, greater than 1m cubic metres of water were tired from the cave the usage of pumps, however the boys would nonetheless be underwater, tethered to a diver, for a lot of the primary 1.7km of the adventure. For the remaining 1.5km, they’d be on stretchers connected to a pulley machine, guided house by way of greater than 100 rescuers fanned out alongside the trail.

Changkwanyuen helped to prepare the supply of apparatus together with small wetsuits, full-face scuba mask and underwater lighting, ordering large provides in case a few of it failed. Someone attempting to shop for a scuba masks in Thailand this week could be dissatisfied, he mentioned. “Mainly each and every full-face masks within the nation is right here.”

Government were looking to keep away from bringing the men out thru water, which Rasmussen had previous mentioned used to be “unquestionably the scariest possibility”.

However what used to be the opposite? Even preserving the men within the cave chamber till January used to be taking a look more and more dangerous, after medics reported that oxygen ranges had depleted to 15% and that the men may fall right into a coma if it fell to 12%.

Rescuers had to carry, pull and swim the boys through more than two miles of tunnels.



Rescuers needed to elevate, pull and swim the men thru greater than two miles of tunnels. Photograph: Thai army Seal handout/EPA

“That made us concern so much,” Apakorn Youkongkaew, a rear admiral within the Thai army, mentioned. “It used to be exhausting to combat nature. What would we do if the oxygen saved reducing?”

Combating illness within the dank surroundings would even have transform more and more tricky. “It is vitally most probably that infections would have began surroundings in, and the men would have deteriorated so much sooner than they already had been,” mentioned Rasmussen.

Every other plan, to drill roughly 600 metres into the men’ chamber from the thicket of jungle above, used to be additionally foundering. Engineers may now not determine the place to drill. “It used to be like discovering a needle in an ocean,” mentioned Youkongkaew.

Monsoon rain predicted for the morning of Saturday 7 July would possibly have flooded the cave, making an extraction inconceivable. When it didn’t come, rescuers knew they needed to opt for it.

“We had sufficient other people to run the groups, the surroundings used to be proper, we had a window with the elements,” mentioned Rasmussen. “We concept, that is going to be the most suitable option we’re going to get.”

Throughout the cave on Sunday morning, ignorant of the hazards forward, the men had been excited, says Changkwanyuen. “They had been like, ‘oh wow, I’m going to move diving’,” he mentioned.

On the other hand, the rescuers had been wracked with nervousness. “There have been manner too many unknowns,” mentioned Rasmussen.

Chanin Wiboonrungrueng, nicknamed Titan, 11, the youngest of the crowd used to be the focal point of maximum fear. Rescuers sourced the smallest scuba masks they might to find – however needed to make it even smaller.

Rescue workers at the Tham Luang cave complex in Chiang Rai.



Rescue staff on the Tham Luang cave complicated in Chiang Rai. Photograph: Social media/Reuters

When Wiboonrungrueng began his adventure out of the cave on Tuesday, they had been nonetheless undecided whether or not the masks’s seal would grasp. “We feared that it wouldn’t are compatible him correctly. That used to be the largest concern,” Rasmussen mentioned.

Rescuers deliberate first of all the most powerful boy, mentioned Changkwanyuen. “However the Australian physician Richard Harris evaluated the men and mentioned everybody used to be similarly sturdy – in order that they picked amongst themselves to peer who would pop out first,” he mentioned.

Thai officers mentioned this week that without equal resolution used to be made by way of the men’ trainer, Ekaphol Chantawong. “The trainer decided on. He wrote the order down: 1, 2, three, four, five,” mentioned Narongsak Osatanakorn, the top of the joint command centre coordinating the operation.

The lads got anti-anxiety medicine. Rescuers would now not touch upon its power, announcing it used to be an issue for the Thai executive. “In the event that they had been apprehensive, they might squirm,” Youkongkaew mentioned. “Some had been aware and a few slept. There used to be no downside.”

How the Thai boys were given out of the cave

Rasmussen used to be stationed at a space referred to as Pattaya Seashore, about 3km within the cave and the longest dry patch between the men’ chamber and “chamber 3” – a ahead working base for the rescue operation.

On every of the 3 mornings of the rescue, he would make the onerous two-hour commute to his designated house with two different divers, teach his eyes at the darkish water past him, and wait.

At about 2.30pm on Sunday, a diver emerged protecting the primary of the men.

“As a group we had been operating in combination to place them in a stretcher once they arrived on Pattaya Seashore [a dry part of the cave complex] and getting them again into the water as speedy as we most likely may,” he mentioned.

“I used to be crouching, crawling, strolling thru water and over rocks, preserving the children within the stretcher in order that they may well be secure thru all of this,” he mentioned.

Navigating the steep, rainy and muddy trail in his phase took about 20 mins. Rasmussen fearful about each and every 2nd, mindful that the men could be in chilly water for 2 hours, risking their core frame temperatures falling to unhealthy lows.

“Time used to be of the essence for us,” he mentioned. “If we fell or had been sluggish it might interrupt now not simply the drift of what’s going down however the entire rescue.”

Each and every diver interviewed mentioned it used to be best on the finish of the primary day that they began to consider they could prevail. “It used to be best after we made it out on Sunday and heard the children had been all excellent and on their strategy to Chiang Rai clinic, we concept, fuck, this would possibly in truth paintings,” mentioned Rasmussen.

The operation become extra environment friendly with on a daily basis, however he mentioned the slightest hitch – similar to heavy rain – would possibly have condemned one of the boys to staying within the cave. “We had been nonetheless in a position to again out totally on Monday night time,” Rasmussen mentioned.

About 3 hours after the remaining boys and Chantawong made it out on Tuesday, with the remaining army workforce leaving the cave, all of the rescue machine collapsed.

“Hastily a water pipe burst and the primary pump stopped operating,” Changkwanyuen mentioned. “We in point of fact needed to run from the 3rd chamber to the doorway since the water degree used to be emerging in no time – like 50cm each and every 10 mins.”

Australian divers in chamber 3 described listening to screams additional up the tunnel, then seeing a hurry of head lamps coming against them.

“It used to be like a film scene, the entirety used to be collapsing,” Changkwanyuen mentioned. “It used to be a kind of acts of God. The cave spirit didn’t need us in there any further. It used to be announcing, ‘I’ve had sufficient of you guys, it’s time to depart.’”

The boys recover on an isolation ward at Prachanukroh hospital, Chiang Rai.



The lads get better on an isolation ward at Prachanukroh clinic, Chiang Rai. Photograph: REX/Shutterstock

Rasmussen does now not have a non secular clarification, however is of the same opinion the timing used to be eerie. “That the entirety breaks down once everyone’s secure? It’s simply bizarre,” he mentioned.

The cave is now empty once more, flooded and inaccessible. Divers will want to go back in 5 months to gather their apparatus.

Rasmussen mentioned he would hunt down two explicit boulders that had troubled him. “I’m going to seek out them and spit on them,” he mentioned. “They spent the week banging my ft and head.”

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